Preventive measures mean all useful, practical and effective methods that make it possible to avoid the occurrence of a hazardous situation. There are multiple methods to help you find solutions to a given problem, but Part XIX of the Regulations has established a hierarchal order: elimination, reduction, protection, and administrative control.
Of all the existing prevention techniques, the elimination of a hazard is the most effective. To achieve this, the machine, thing, condition or activity, that constitutes the hazard, is replaced by another machine, thing, condition or activity that eliminates the original hazard, and which does not create a new hazard. For example, if you prohibit everyone from walking in a warehouse, you eliminate the hazard of collision between staff and a lift truck.
If you cannot eliminate the hazard, you can attempt to reduce it through control techniques that aim to diminish the intensity of the hazard should it occur, prevent the hazardous situation from occurring, or eliminate hazardous tasks. For example, in a warehouse, you can identify corridors and areas that are safe for pedestrians by using yellow stripes painted on the floor.
Protection techniques make it possible to counter a hazardous occurrence or diminish the scope of potential damage. There are two types of protection: group and personal. Group protection involves blocking or separating the hazard from the employee. For example, you can install buffers in strategic locations to prevent the lift truck from entering areas where people circulate. Personal protection involves providing employees with protective equipment or clothing. For example, the use of high-visibility apparel.
Part XIX of the Regulations require that administrative measures be considered only after the preceding preventive measures have been considered, not because they are without value, but because technical solutions are more effective than solutions that focus on individuals. This category encompasses all management techniques that aim to reduce the hazard.
Regardless of the preventive measures proposed, the preventive maintenance program is mandatory. Its purpose is to prevent failure in the long term of structures, equipment, machinery and tools through routine inspections and the repair of worn parts. For example, planned inspections, mechanical maintenance and the replacement of worn brakes on a lift truck are indispensable prevention measures.
Since Part XIX of the Regulations require a preventive maintenance program, you must establish a list of the structures, machinery, equipment and tools that need to be inspected, adjusted, cleaned, lubricated, replaced, and so on. You must draw up a maintenance schedule, describe the maintenance procedures, record the work completed, verify the progress of work and assess effectiveness.
Since a preventive measure is a control of a present hazard, a current working condition or an existing activity, make sure that the measure itself is not a source of a hazard before implementing it. For example, if you install a conveyor belt to replace a lift truck, make sure it is in compliance with current safety standards.
A preventive measure must not create a new hazard. If such a hazard arises, it must be dealt with as soon as possible. For example, when indicating areas for pedestrian traffic, make sure it does not cause an unsafe congestion of lift trucks in another location, install mirrors so that the operator can see pedestrians before turning a blind corner, and so on.
Keeping a record of implemented preventive measures is important to the success of the hazard prevention program. You will need this record to complete the subsequent steps in the prevention process.
Content and duration of education
Although the detail of instruction and its duration may vary depending on the requirements of each work position, the requirements of 19.6(1) must be addressed.
As soon as the content and the duration of the education sessions have been determined, you must prepare the education schedule.
There is no requirement to educate every employee every three years, although refresher sessions in between are a good idea. However, they must be educated before performing their tasks, before being exposed to a hazard and every time you receive new information about the hazards they are exposed to. You must review your education program accordingly. If there is no change in the hazards, you must review the program every three years.
Confirmation of education
Whenever an education session is given, the employer must acknowledge in writing that the education took place, and employees must also acknowledge in writing that they have received such education. In many cases, a simple learning report such as the one presented below is all that is required.
Signature of the person responsible for training:
Date of training:12/04/09
For each employee, you must create and regularly update a record of all occupational health and safety education you have provided. This record must be kept for two years following the date the employee ceases being exposed to a hazard. Here is an example of a education record:
Employee Education Record
|No.||From - To - Duration||Course Title||Description|
|1||12/04/02 - 12/04/02 - 3½ hrs||Tire repair||Work procedures on a new machine|
|2||15/02/03 - 16/02/03 - 14 hrs||Work procedures on a new machine||Preventive maintenance|
|3||05/07/03 - 05/07/03 - 1 hr||LPG||Handling of tanks, refuelling safety|
|4||10/04/09 - 12/04/09 - 3 days||Lift trucks||Defensive driving, maintenance and inspection|